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persian gulf saba steel iran sponge iron dri

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Production of sponge ironHS code of sponge ironSponge iron exportersSponge iron briquetteMidrex process for sponge iron makingProduction of sponge iron by the method of PERREDHot briquetted iron (hbi) production plantHot briquetted iron (hbi)Hot briquetted iron (hbi) analysisPrices of sponge ironProduction of sponge iron by the hyl-zr method

The sponge iron dri of Persian gulf saba steel iran in the form of hot briquetted iron is offered in the following analysis and dimensions. It can be said that more than 95 percent of the Persian Gulf’s sponge iron or hot sponge briquette is sold in the export sector and about five percent of it goes to domestic factories.

Production of sponge iron

The sponge iron is a reductive porous iron pellet known as the acronym dri, which stands for direct reduction iron, or sponge iron derived from its appearance. Production of this product has increased and boomed with the development of melting units equipped with induction furnaces and electric arcs. Sponge iron is obtained by direct reduction without melting of porous pellets.

HS code of sponge iron

The customs tariff code or hs code used in international customs for sponge iron transactions is 73071110.

Sponge iron exporters

The highest production of sponge iron in the world is in Iran and India. Our country Iran is one of the main producers of sponge iron. The development of several direct reduction units with a nominal capacity exceeding 2.5 million tons has made Iran one of the main sources of production and export of sponge iron in the world. The methods used in Iran’s direct reduction units to produce sponge iron include the following processes:

  • Midrex direct reduction
  • PERRED Direct reduction process

In the following section, we examine two processes separately.

Sponge iron briquette

Of course, the sponge iron product itself comes in four forms.

  • In the form of hot briquetted sponge iron
  • Cold briquetted sponge iron
  • DRI pellets
  • And briquetting of sponge iron fines

We will examine the differences and specifications of each of these four products below.

Midrex process for sponge iron making

In sum, the processes of direct reduction and production of sponge iron product can be classified into two general groups according to the main resuscitation factor.

  1. Basic Natural Gas Method: Methods of gas-based reduction process and natural gas are used as the reducing agent in the reduction of iron pellets.
  2. Coal base method: In the coal base method, the main factor in the process is the reduction of iron pellets and the production of sponge iron, coal.

Both methods are used in sponge iron producing countries. In Iran, due to the natural gas resources available, most of the basic gas method is used and exploited.

Midrex of sponge iron production methods based on the reduction of iron pellets with natural gas is planned. One of the most cost-effective methods of direct resuscitation available in the world is the Middrex process. In fact, methane gas reduction furnaces with hydrogen and carbon decomposition provide two major reductions. These resuscitation agents, by dealing with falling pellets of iron pellets, revive the iron ore pellets and thus produce sponge iron.

Sponge iron from the direct reduction unit, hot sponge iron with a temperature of about 650 ° C.

Production of sponge iron by the method of PERRED

Production of sponge iron by the PERRED method is a process invented by Iranian experts. The basis of the idea of PERRED consists of two methods of Midrex and direct reduction using the hyl-zr method.

There are three main parts to the PERRED Direct Reduction Unit, including:

  1. Material handling system
  2. The central area is called the core area
  3. And is a water treatment unit (called water treatment).

The first part, namely, its own transport unit has three sub-divisions. Including:

  1. Drainage, accumulation and harvesting
  2. Transfer of iron pellets to direct resuscitation furnace
  3. And the transfer part of the sponge iron product from the furnace to the silos section.

The central area also consists of the following sections:

  1. Furnace where the process of iron pellet resuscitation is performed in that part
  2. A regenerative gas generating unit known as a reformer
  3. Heat recovery unit
  4. Compressor and blower parts
  5. And control room

The Water Operations Division, as the name implies, also relates to the sections responsible for supplying water needed for the restoration process and responsible for its treatment.

The other units of the sponge iron factory which are as auxiliary units can be described as dust collector units containing dust collector systems.

Some sponge iron production units, such as the Persian Gulf Saba steel sponge iron, also have briquetting units alongside the aforementioned sections, which are major components of the reclamation unit.

Hot briquetted iron (hbi) production plant

In the briquetting process, the porous grains and sponge iron fines are subjected to briquetting in order to improve its physicochemical properties. The briquetting process itself, or in other words briquetting, is done in several ways. This will be discussed in more detail in the next sections of this article.

Hot briquetted iron (hbi)

Sponge iron, which is the result of a direct resuscitation unit, is a very good alternative to iron scrap in induction furnaces and arcs. The ratio of use of sponge iron in furnaces depends on the type of sponge iron in addition to the type of furnace. In the previous sections, we mentioned that sponge iron itself may come in several forms, including hot briquetted sponge iron, Cold briquetted sponge iron, DRI pellets and briquetting of sponge iron fines

One of the most important reasons for the conversion of sponge iron after the resuscitation process to sponge iron briquetting is to eliminate the relative disadvantages of this product in transportation or storage. If you know this product, it is familiar with its disadvantages.

  • Oxidation
  • Probability of ignition

These two are the most important disadvantages of the sponge iron product. By briquetting sponge iron, the porosity of the product is reduced to a certain extent, leaving the product out of the range of hazardous products. It can be transported in bulk and can be stored in bulk for a long time.

The briquetting unit may be built next to the direct reduction unit. Such as the Persian Gulf Saba Steel Company’s hot briquetting unit. Or it may be located elsewhere.

Having a briquetting unit next to a direct reduction unit can greatly reduce the cost of producing sponge iron briquettes. Having a briquetting unit next to a direct resuscitation unit can greatly reduce the cost of producing sponge iron briquettes. Especially for the production of hot briquetted iron (hbi) which is the output of the direct resuscitation unit at the same time as the briquetting unit inlet charge.

The entire product, owned by the Persian Gulf Saba Steel Reduction Unit, is manufactured and supplied in the form of sponge iron hot briquettes. In addition to domestic customers, Saba Sponge Steel Iron has many foreign customers such as Syria, India and others. Of course, the biggest sales of sponge iron from the Persian Gulf are in the export sector.

Hot briquetted iron (hbi) analysis

The analysis of hot briquetting of sponge iron supplied by Azerbaijani Simorgh steel, accepted for export at a minimum tonnage of 20,000 tonnes and available for domestic supply in volume of 5,000 tons, can be found below.

In the analysis of hot briquetting sponge iron, what is important in the analysis of sponge iron is taken into account. These include the percentage of Fe in the Fe total product and the percentage of Fe in the metal Fe Fe. In addition, carbon, sulfur and phosphorus percentages are also important and are listed in the hot iron briquette analysis table. Carbon is the main alloying element of steel that should be controlled in the ingot process, but sulfur and phosphorus are intrusive elements that should be as low as possible in sponge iron and sponge iron briquette.

You can see the analysis table for hot iron briquette briquette.

Hot briquetted iron
Total Fe88-89%
Metallic Fe81-82%
Carbon0.95% (+-0.1%)
Sulphur0.007% (+-0.001%)

The dimensions of the hot briquette produced by sponge iron are as follows.

Hot briquetted iron
Weight850 gr

Prices of sponge iron

The relationship between the use of sponge iron and scrap iron, as mentioned above, depends primarily on the type of furnace that is arc-type or induction and secondly on the type of sponge iron whether or not it is briquetted.

The proportion that can be considered in the use of sponge iron briquettes is usually higher than that of scrap metal. This, along with some other considerations, such as the lower spraying rate due to the lower porosity of the product, increases the efficiency of use. That is, the efficiency of the melting process in the use of sponge iron briquette is greater than the efficiency of the use of sponge iron for melting.

Production of sponge iron by the hyl-zr method

The hyl process has been designed and launched since the early 1950s. Over time, it has been industrialized and some of the drawbacks of this method, including its static platform, have been corrected.

Each hyl-zr direct resuscitation unit has different sections that we can group into the following sections:

  • The equipment and parts of this unit include a recycling furnace consisting of sections for charging iron ore pellets and a sponge iron discharge system.
  • Regenerative Gas Control System: This system has its sub-components including heating, cooling, pressure regulation, etc. The gas needed for regeneration in this method is obtained from natural gas and water vapor.
  • Rechargeable materials and products transportation system. Iron ore pellets are corded materials and sponge iron. This section includes conveyors and …
  • Thermodynamic system of water cooling required for resuscitation unit
  • process control
  • Cooling tower and filtration
  • CO2 removal unit

We have mentioned a number of sections and subsets of a direct hyl-zr resuscitation unit above. Another thing is that in the direct reduction process, the temperature of the process. The direct reduction process temperature in this method is 950 ° C. This temperature must be maintained in order to achieve a satisfactory degree of metallicity and suitable metal content in the product.

In the next articles about other types of sponge iron such as cold briquetting of sponge iron and sponge iron briquette fines will talk in more detail.

Leila Nematzadeh

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